The Schengen Agreement was drawn up to create uniform border rules for all its member countries. The Schengen visa, for example, grants its holders a stay of up to 90 days in the region. This means that a Schengen visa can be used to travel through the 26 countries that have signed the agreement for a stay of up to 90 days in a 180-day period. A short-stay visa costs €60 (€46; £66), but only $35 for Russians, Ukrainians and citizens of some other countries under visa facilitation agreements. However, certain third-country nationals are allowed to stay in the Schengen area for more than 90 days without the need to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, the France does not require citizens of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City to apply for a long-stay visa.  In addition, Article 20(2) of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement provides for this “in exceptional circumstances” and that bilateral agreements concluded by the various signatory States with other countries before the entry into force of the Convention continue to apply. As a result, New Zealand nationals may, for example, stay for up to 90 days in one of the Schengen countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom) that had already concluded bilateral visa waiver agreements with the New Zealand Government before the entry into force of the agreement, without the need to apply for a long-stay visa. but for travel to other Schengen countries, the 90 days apply within a period of 180 days.            [excessive quotations] It takes its name from the city of Schengen in Luxembourg, where the agreement was signed in 1985. It entered into force in 1995. From 2015, Andorra, Monaco and San Marino negotiated an association agreement with the EU.
Andorra`s ambassador to Spain, Jaume Gaytán, said he hoped the agreement would contain provisions to make states associate members of the Schengen agreement.  Many external border crossing points have special lanes for EU, EEA and Swiss citizens (and their family members) and other routes for all travellers, regardless of nationality.  At some external border crossing points, there is a third type of route for Annex II nationals (i.e. visa-exempt nationals of non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries).  Although Andorran and San Marino nationals are not EU or EEA citizens, they can still use the special routes for EU, EEA and Swiss citizens.  BRITISH citizens will not be able to use the EU route after Brexit under the current state of the rules unless such a right is negotiated in the Brexit deal with the EU. During the migrant crisis in September 2015, Germany announced that it would temporarily reintroduce border controls in line with the provisions of the Schengen acquis on temporary border controls. These border controls appear to be an attempt to prevent disorder from exacerbating the crisis. The opening of borders appears to have hampered Germany`s ability to take on many asylum seekers at the same time. Germany points out that border controls are only temporary and only serve to support an orderly migration flow in the region.
[needs to be updated] Under Schengen rules, signatories can reintroduce internal border controls for 10 days if necessary immediately for reasons of “public policy or national security”. The call was made by the announcement of a new electronic border system in the UK to increase security by monitoring travellers entering the country, which will come into effect in 2009. The programme should require people arriving from Ireland to present a passport to comply with the new security rules. The British authorities have not ruled this out, but insist that they wish to preserve the Common Travel Area (CTA) between the United Kingdom and Ireland, which has existed since the separation of Ireland from the United Kingdom in 1922. “We don`t want to jeopardize CTA and we have no intention of jeopardizing it,” one diplomat said. One of the EU`s biggest advantages is that citizens can travel between states without using their passports – unless they want to enter the UK or Ireland, none of which has signed the Schengen Agreement, which guarantees freedom of movement between EU members. Before concluding an agreement with a neighbouring country, the Schengen state must obtain the approval of the European Commission, which must confirm that the draft agreement complies with the regulation. The agreement can only be concluded if the neighbouring country grants reciprocal rights to at least EEA and Swiss citizens residing on the Schengen side of the border area and accepts the return of persons who abuse the border agreement. As more and more EU Member States have signed the Schengen Agreement, a consensus has been reached on its inclusion in EU procedures. The Convention and related conventions were incorporated into the mainstream of European Union law in 1997 by the Treaty of Amsterdam, which entered into force in 1999.
The fact that the agreement is part of EU law means that any changes or regulations are made as part of its processes in which non-EU members do not participate. The UK and Ireland have operated a Common Travel Area (CTA) since 1923 (with passport-free travel and freedom of movement between them), but the UK would not abolish border controls with other countries and would therefore withdraw from the agreement. Although Ireland did not sign the Schengen Treaty, it saw accession increasingly positively, but did not do so in order to keep CTA and its border open with Northern Ireland.  The Nordic members called for the admission of Norway and Iceland, which was accepted in order to reach a consensus. [Citation needed] Visa liberalisation negotiations between the EU and the Western Balkans (with the exception of Kosovo) started in the first half of 2008 and were completed in 2009 (for Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia) and 2010 (for Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina). Before the complete abolition of visas, the Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia) had signed “visa facilitation agreements” with the Schengen states in 2008. Visa facilitation agreements at the time were aimed at shortening wait times, reducing visa fees (including free visas for certain categories of travellers) and reducing red tape. In practice, however, the new procedures have proven to be longer, heavier, more costly, and many people have complained that it is easier to obtain visas before the entry into force of the facilitation agreements.    With my family in both jurisdictions, I was a frequent traveler across that line in the lawn in the 1980s and 1990s. Even then, at the height of the problems, there was no passport application, although British army checkpoints often searched cars. Today, the checkpoints have disappeared, and the only thing that alerts the traveler from the fact that he has crossed the border is the passage from kilometers to kilometers on road signs in the north – this and the fact that the roads of the Republic are now superior.
Vatican City has an open border with Italy. In 2006, it expressed its interest in joining the Schengen Agreement with a view to closer cooperation on the exchange of information and similar activities covered by the Schengen Information System.  Exceptionally, Italy allowed people to visit Vatican City without being accepted for an Italian visa, and then escorted by police between the airport and the Vatican or to use a helicopter. [Citation needed] However, there is no customs union (including customs duties) between Italy and the Vatican, so all vehicles are controlled at the Vatican`s borders. Even if the UK had not voted to leave the EU, ETIAS would not have been valid for travelling to the UK as the UK did not sign the Schengen Agreement. At present, it is expected that ETIAS will only be required for travel within the Schengen area. When EU states negotiated to integrate the Schengen Agreement into the EU through the Treaty of Amsterdam, Ireland and the UK were the only member states not to have signed the agreement. The UK did not want to join and Ireland wanted to keep its common travel area with the UK and the islands associated with it, an agreement that would be incompatible with Schengen membership, while the UK would remain outside. As a result, both negotiated a derogation from the part of the Treaty that aimed to incorporate the Schengen rules (or the acquis) into EU law when it entered into force on 1 May 1999.  Under the relevant Protocol, each of them may apply to participate in certain aspects of the Schengen acquis, but this is subject to the consent of the Schengen States.
 On 31 January 2020, the United Kingdom withdrew from the European Union and the Protocol ceased to apply. Ireland will continue to exploit the common travel area and will not join the Schengen area for the foreseeable future as it wants to keep its land border with the UK open.  The United Kingdom and Ireland participated in certain aspects of the Schengen Agreement, such as the Schengen Information System (SIS), from 2000 and 2002 respectively. .